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Jupiter Bay's Financial Management requires understanding Florida statutes and administrative codes and several complex concepts.

This web page, and linked pages, provide the following important financial-related information:

  • JB 10-Yr. Financial Analysis
  • JB Building Expense Splits
  • Distribution of Surplus Funds
  • Preparing the Annual Budget
  • Changes Made Past 2 Years
  • Budget & Reserves Training
  • Cash Balance versus Fund Balance
  • Jupiter Bay Budgets 2009 - 2020
  • Jupiter Bay's Financial Policy
  • Commingling of Funds
  • Multicondominium Association Accounting 101
  • The Mailbox Rule
  • FLCAJ's Salary Survey

Jupiter Bay 10-Year Financial Analysis

Select the following link to obtain an analysis of Jupiter Bay's finances over the past 10 years.

Download Analysis Here

Jupiter Bay Building Expense Splits

With its 8 individual associations, the Jupiter Bay Condominium Association’s budgeting and expense management are complex. Expenses are divided into two major categories – those that are common to all 8 associations and those that are assigned to one of the 8 associations/buildings.

The subject of building splits refers to the 9 expense items that are charged in differing amounts to the 8 individual associations.  All other “common” or general expenses are allocated to the 8 associations based on number of units, with each unit charged 1/359th of the total expenditure. (Jupiter Bay has 359 total units.)

The 9 expenses that are split, in differing amounts, to the 8 individual associations include: 

  1.  Property Insurance – Property insurance premiums are split based on the insured value of the building(s). For the 2/2019 to 2/2020 insurance period, 43.13% of the building property insurance budget was allocated to the East, with 6.95% to the Villas, and 8.32% to each of the 6 West associations/buildings.
  2. Wind Insurance – The 4 East buildings are less prone to wind damage and therefore have lower per unit wind insurance costs ($19.16 per month versus $32.91 per month for the Villas and $40.23 per month for the West). Wind insurance premiums are charged to the individual 8 associations based on the premium amount. For the 2/2019 to 2/2020 insurance period, 22.68% of the building wind insurance budget was allocated to the East, with 9.44% to the Villas, and 11.31% to each of the 6 West associations/buildings.
  3. Fire Protection – The East buildings have fire sprinklers in each unit, the West buildings have fire sprinklers only in the attics, and the Villas have no fire sprinklers. Half of the West pump house equipment is used to deliver high-pressure sprinkler water to the West Buildings and restaurant; whereas, the East has its own fire sprinkler pump house adjacent to the East B building. All buildings have fire extinguishers. Fire protection expenses vary based on equipment testing, maintenance, and replacement costs. Due to its extensive fire protection systems, the East usually pays more for fire protection (25% to 45% of the total fire protection expense).
  4. License/Fire Inspection Fees – These fees are charged directly to the applicable association/building. They vary because of the different fire protection systems described above.
  5. Utilities – With the exception of elevator phones, all utility (water, sewerage, electricity, cable TV/Internet, and pool/office phones) expenses are allocated evenly (1/359th) to each unit. Elevator phones are charged to those associations/buildings with elevators.
  6. Elevator Repair & Maintenance – The monthly elevator service contract charge is split evening among the 10 elevator locations (4 for the East and one for each West building). Charges not covered by the contract are charged to the building requiring the repair.
  7. East Generator Repair & Maintenance – Only the East has an emergency electric generator and received all related charges.
  8. Pest Control – The East and West/Villas have separate rodent control contracts with Hewlett that are directly charged.  Costs for the general pest control contract with Global are divided 1/359.
  9. Building Repair & Maintenance – All building repair and maintenance expenses are charged to the association/building incurring the expense.

 Florida statutes require expenses to be properly allocated to the associations incurring the costs.

Distribution of Surplus Funds

Several homeowners have asked about what happens at yearend if the assessment monies collected from them exceed the Association's expenses.  They want to know if the money should be returned to them, and if not, where does it go?

The answer to the question depends on whether this is a surplus from regular quarterly owner assessments or a surplus from special assessments.  Here’s the answer to both:

Regular Quarterly Assessment Surplus

Florida Statute 617.0505 says “Except as authorized in s. 617.1302 (dissolution), a corporation may not make distributions to its members, directors, or officers.”  This means that a common surplus of funds resulting from income exceeding expenses cannot be returned directly to the unit owners and an alternative disposition must be used.  The alternate disposition of excess funds can be:

  • Credited towards the next year’s budget for the benefit of unit owners in the same percentage as their ownership in the common elements (this is most common), or

  • Allocated to the reserve accounts of the association.

Paragraph 9.1(a) of Jupiter Bay’s bylaws says “Current Expense, which shall include all receipts and expenditures within the year for which the Class A and Class B Budgets are made including a reasonable allowance for contingen­cies and working funds, except expenditures chargeable to re­serves, to additional improvements or to operations. The balance in this fund at the end of each year shall be applied to reduce the assessments for Class A and Class B expenses for the succeeding year."

Special Assessment Surplus

Special Assessment are treated differently in that they can either be returned to the unit owners or applied as a credit toward future assessments.

This is clarified in Florida Statute 718.116(10), which says “The specific purpose or purposes of any special assessment, including any contingent special assessment levied in conjunction with the purchase of an insurance policy authorized by s. 718.111(11), approved in accordance with the condominium documents shall be set forth in a written notice of such assessment sent or delivered to each unit owner. The funds collected pursuant to a special assessment shall be used only for the specific purpose or purposes set forth in such notice. However, upon completion of such specific purpose or purposes, any excess funds will be considered common surplus, and may, at the discretion of the board, either be returned to the unit owners or applied as a credit toward future assessments.”

Preparing the Annual Budget

The Association's annual budget determines:

  1. How much money is allocated to each of the various operating expense items,
  2. Funding for the reserves (deferred maintenance & capital expenditure items), and
  3. Quarterly owner maintenance assessments for each of the 8 individual associations.

Please reference the "Annual Budget" page of this website for a comprehensive description of the annual budget preparation process.

Since Taking Over in April, 2015, the "Building a Better Jupiter Bay" Board Made Significant Improvements to JB's Financials

Many improvements have been made to assure the quality and transparency of Jupiter Bay's financial systems and records:

  • The Peachtree (SAGE 50) accounting software was replaced with the industry-standard QuickBooks software.  This allows multiple people (office staff, treasurer, president) to have cloud access to the Association's accounting records for inquiry and analysis.
  • In-house maintenance of our financial records by an administrative assistant was replaced with professional contracted bookkeeping services.
  • Additional effective financial controls were introduced to assure proper checks & balances, helping to prevent fraud or abuse?
  • Information on the various financial reports (accounts receivable, accounts payable, reserve schedule, treasurer's report) now reconciles (to the penny) with Balance Sheet data.
  • Coupon books, for the collection of quarterly maintenance fees, are being supplemented by late notices and other correspondence to delinquent owners.
  • The Association's chart-of-accounts was restructured and simplified, with a cleared distinction between community common and building/association accounts.  This greatly improves budgeting, analysis/comparisons and owners' understanding of the Association's finances?
  • Regular monthly financial reporting was re-instituted using a standard 8-section document, providing board members and interested owners with comprehensive and straightforward financial information in a clear and transparent format?
  • Adjustments were made to help assure the appropriate allocation of expenses to the individual associations (buildings) and the community shared common areas.
  • Standard formulas (per FL Administrative Code 61B-22) are again being used for calculating reserve contributions.
  • Annual Budget Committee meetings are being held to provide owner input.
  • Replacement cost and useful life estimates are being easily and accurately estimated from inflation-adjusted prior capital expenditures and updated vendor quotes.
  • Budget modeling software is being used to more accurately project expenses and assure appropriate fee schedules across the 8 Jupiter Bay associations.

Budget & Reserves Training

Here's a self-study training manual on Budget and Reserve Schedules.  The manual provides important information for the Treasurer, other board members and interested owners.  It was published by the Department of Business & Professional Regulation, which is a part of the Division of Florida Condominiums, Timeshares, and Mobile Homes.  The manual includes training material, with definitions, examples, checklists, and a series of practice exercises.

Click here to download Self-Study Manual

Cash Balance versus Fund Balance

In condominium association financial accounting, there is oftentimes confusion between the terms Cash Balance and Fund Balance. As a not-for-profit corporation, the Association uses Fund Accounting, which emphasizes how money is spent rather than profitability, and it requires that operating and replacement funds (reserves) be classified separately. Also, Accrual Accounting is used, rather than Cash Basis, for tracking and recording income and expenses.  This means that income exists when owner invoices are generated, and expenses exist when vendor bills are entered into the Association’s accounting software.

Cash Balance is a point-in-time value based primarily on:

Cash-on hand (e.g., petty cash)

+ Receivables (money invoiced and not yet received)

-  Payables (bills received but not yet paid)

Because of separate accounting for operating funds and reserves, a “due to/due from” account is included showing money owed to the Operating Account from the Reserve Account.

Cash Balance is a lot like an individual’s checking account, where the daily balance fluctuates day-by-day as income is posted and checks are written. For example, the Association’s financial reports showed a $-94,337 cash balance in December 2018 and a $229,064 cash balance in January 2019. Consequently, Cash Balance, as posted on a monthly financial report, is a rather meaningless figure for determining the financial strength of an organization. This number is more suspect for two reasons:

  • Although we generally wait until the 15th of the following month to produce the financial report for the prior month end, new transactions frequently trickle in past the cutoff date, and
  • The December monthly financial report does not reflect the auditor’s yearend adjusting journal entries.

On the other hand, Fund Balance is a very precise audited number. It can be calculated for the current year’s Operating Fund as Revenues minus Expenses. According to the Auditor’s Report, this figure for the year ending December 31, 2018 is $-1,110. Counting all prior years, the Association’s fund balance was $-74,855, the number that I report. From a balance sheet perspective, this same number results from the calculation of total Assets minus total Liabilities.

Accountants caution that Cash Balance is different than Fund Balance. They say that “Cash is a current liquid asset while Fund is a liability which may be current or non-current and doesn’t have to be liquid.” However, the association’s accurate financial position comes from the Fund Balance line of the Auditor’s Annual Report and not from any point-in-time available cash figure from an imprecise monthly financial report. Fund Balance reflects the Association’s true net financial position, which provides an accurate Cash Balance. Fund Balance tells how much money is being borrowed from future assessments.

Jupiter Bay Budgets 2009 - 2020

Following are Jupiter Bay Budgets for the past 12 years:


Operating Expense

Reserve Expense

Total Budget

Budget Increase

% Increase

Special Assessments






















East Only
























Villas Only 
















West Only

































Jupiter Bay's Financial Policy

The Association President in 2013 asked Paul St.Clair, who wrote Jupiter Bay's original Financial Policy, to update the policy to conform to current statutes, code and procedures.  This task was initially completed in February, 2014, and afterwards eight policy drafts were developed, sent to Board members, and reviewed with Jupiter Bay Treasurers and bookkeeping staff. The updated version was approved by the Board of Directors at the May 20th Board Meeting.  This release extensively references the Association's Condominium Documents and Florida statutes.

The following additional updates to the 2014 version of the Association’s Financial Policy were approved by the Board at a 10/21/15 Board Meeting:

o   Clarification of multi-condominium Association and commingling of funds (Paragraphs 3 & 4).

o   Changing Peachtree Sage 50 accounting software to QuickBooks (Paragraph 5).

o   Adding “bonds” to the reserve investment options (Paragraph 7).

o   Adding “unit’s exterior door” to the list of limited common elements (Paragraph 8, Section 2).

o   Listing of all of the individual reserve items included within the common and building reserve schedule categories (Paragraph 9).

o   Deleting “adjusting journal entries” from the monthly financial report contents (Paragraph 10).

Following is the latest version reflecting these changes.  


Download Updated Financial Policy Here

"No Exception" Policy.  The Association's June, 2013 Newsletter announced a "NO EXCEPTION" policy regarding late-payment penalties. This "policy" was never brought up for a Board vote, and it is absent from the Association's published Financial Policy. The 2015 Board revisited and relaxed the policy.

This "No Exception" policy was probably in conflict with the Community Association Institute, that says Community Leaders have the responsibility to: "Devise appropriate and reasonable arrangements, when needed and as feasible, to facilitate the ability of individual homeowners to meet their financial obligations to the community".

Commingling of Funds

Does the Association commingle funds and is it legal? The simple answer to both questions is YES.  Commingling is when funds (cash) are mixed between Operating and Reserve investment accounts and among condominiums in a multicondominium community.  Florida statutes allow commingling of cash within certain restrictions.  However, the Association’s books must accurately reflect at all times the exact funds in the reserve and operating accounts.

Florida Statute 718.111 (14) establishes commingling rules as follows:

  • For investment purposes only, reserve funds may be commingled with operating funds of the association.
  • Commingled operating and reserve funds shall be accounted for separately, and a commingled account shall not, at any time, be less than the amount identified as reserve funds.
  • A multicondominium association is not prohibited from commingling: the operating funds of separate condominiums, the reserve funds of separate condominiums, or all funds for investment purposes only.

In addition, Florida Administrative Code 61B-22.005(2) requires Associations that collect operating and reserve assessments as a single payment to transfer the reserve portion of the payment to a separate account, or accounts, within 30 calendar days from the date the funds were deposited.

Commingling is important in the day-to-day management of the Association’s finances because it allows the Association to fund Reserve Accounts and spend Reserve money without having to constantly move cash into and out of the Reserve Investment Account.  Any time that the Association’s Balance sheet shows money due to/from the Reserve Account, there is commingling of funds.  This Asset/Liability entry is prevalent in most of Jupiter Bay’s monthly financial report. Also, Jupiter Bay has always commingled the Operating Funds of its 8 associations.

Multicondominium Association Accounting 101

Jupiter Bay has 8 separate condominium associations (East, Villas and 6 West buildings), each with their own financial records, as well as a Master Association.  Multicondominium Association accounting requires all income and expense to be posted to the correct association.  This is true for both Operating and Reserve accounts.  Operating Accounts are used for day-to-day operation of the association, whereas master and individual condominium Reserve Accounts are required for capital expenditures and deferred maintenance.

Condominiums use Accrual Accounting, rather than Cash Basis, for tracking and recording income and expenses.  This means that income exists when owner invoices are generated, and expenses exist when vendor bills are entered into the accounting software.  At the end of each year an Annual Financial Statement Audit is conducted as required by Florida statutes.  The Annual Audit reviews the accounting records and calculates cash balances for the Operating Account(s).  Jupiter Bay maintains its own Reserve Account balances on a Reserve Schedule that is maintained monthly and presented to owners each year as a part of the Annual Budget.

For many recent years, including 2012, Jupiter Bay has not had a Multicondominium Audit, meaning that separate Operating Fund balances were not calculated for each individual condominium association.  In fact the 2012 auditor's statement said "The Association has not treated each condominium separately for audited financial statement purposes, but has maintained internal separate financial records by each condominium."  A Multicondominum Audit was performed for 2013 through 2018.

In a Multicondominium Association there are two ways that operating account records can be accurately maintained to assure that owners in each individual association are charged correct maintenance fees:

  1. Maintain separate Operating fund balances for each association, or
  2. Track income and expenses individually for each association and determine, at the end of each year, whether the association has an Operating Fund surplus or shortage. Then, credit or charge the association this surplus or shortage in next year's budget. For example, if an association has 32 units and a $3,200 shortage in 2012, each owner would pay an additional $100 annual ($25 quarterly) maintenance fee in 2013.
Budgets for the first 3 of the last 5 years (2010-2012) used the second method in calculating quarterly owner maintenance fees.  For 2013, neither method was used, and maintenance fees were artificially frozen at the prior year (2012) values.  It's unclear how the Treasurer accounted for fund balance differences in determining 2014 maintenance fees.  Owner maintenance fees were again frozen artificially for 2015 at prior year values with no consideration for differing building surpluses, deficits and expenditures.

The Mailbox Rule

There is frequently confusion or misinformation regarding the effective date of a document (legal notice, contract, check, etc.) that is sent via US mail.  The actual effective date is consistent and is based on the Mailbox Rule.  The rule says that it's always the date mailed (i.e., the postmarked date) as shown in the following examples:

  • Acceptance of a contract is effective when it is mailed.
  • The effective date of a Claim of Lien or Foreclosure notice is defined by statute as the date of mailing.
  • Florida courts have been clear about when owner assessment payments should be credited (when mailed, not when received).


FLCAJ Salary Survey

To find out what other condominium associations are paying their employees, please click on the link below to obtain the Florida Community Association Journal's 2012-2013 Salary Survey.


Click here to download Salary Survey